Beginner’s Guide to Cyber Security Fundamentals


Attackers are now employing more advanced methods to target the systems. Individuals, small enterprises, and major corporations are all affected. As a result, all of these businesses, whether IT or non-IT, have recognized the necessity of cyber security and are working on implementing all available countermeasures. Organizations and their employees should be prepared to cope with cyber threats and hackers now that the game has changed. Because we like to link everything to the internet, the risk of vulnerabilities, breaches, and defects increases.

Passwords are no longer sufficient to protect the system and its contents. We all want to keep our personal and professional data safe, thus Cyber Security is something you should be aware of. Let’s start by defining the word “cyber security”…

What is the definition of cyber security?

Cyber security is the process and tactics for preventing cyber-attacks on sensitive data, computer systems, networks, and software applications. Cyber attacks are a broad term that refers to a variety of issues, but some of the most common are:

  1. Tampering with computer systems and data
  2. Resources exploitation
  3. Accessing sensitive information and gaining unauthorized access to the targeted system Causing disruption in the business’s and processes’ routine operations
  4. Encrypting data and extorting money from victims through ransomware attacks

Attacks are getting more sophisticated and imaginative, posing a threat to security and hacking systems. As a result, it is extremely difficult for any business or security analyst to overcome this obstacle and combat these attacks. Let’s take a look at the many types of threats and attacks to better appreciate the necessity for Cyber Security procedures and practices.



Ransomware is a file encryption software application that encrypts files on the target machine using a unique, powerful encryption algorithm. The Ransomware threat’s authors create a unique decryption key for each of its victims and save it on a remote server. As a result, users are unable to access their files through any application. The authors of ransomware take advantage of this and demand a large ransom from victims in exchange for the decryption code or data decryption. However, even after paying the ransom, such attacks do not ensure data recovery.


Botnets Attacks

Botnets were created with the intention of doing certain activities inside a group. It is defined as a network or group of devices that are connected to the same network and are used to complete a task. However, bad actors and hackers are now attempting to get access to the network and introduce dangerous code or malware in order to disrupt its operation. The following are examples of botnet attacks:


  • DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) assaults are a type of distributed denial of service attack.
  • Spam email distribution
  • Stealing of confidential data

Due to their extensive data access, botnet attacks are typically directed at large-scale enterprises and organizations. Hackers can use this technique to get control of a large number of devices and compromise them for their malicious purposes.


Attacks Using Social Engineering

Cybercriminals are increasingly employing social engineering to obtain sensitive information from users. It may deceive you by displaying appealing adverts, prizes, and large offers, as well as requesting your personal and bank account information. All of the data you enter there is cloned and used for financial and identity fraud, among other things. It’s worth mentioning the ZEUS virus, which has been active since 2007 and is employed as a social engineering assault tool to steal victims’ financial information. Social engineering assaults can also download various damaging risks to the affected system, in addition to financial losses.


Cryptocurrency Hijacking

The new addition to the online realm is cryptocurrency hijacking. As digital money and mining become more popular, cybercriminals are following suit. Crypto-currency mining, which includes advanced computers to mine virtual currencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Monero, Litecoin, and others, has become their evil benefit.


Cryptocurrency investors and traders are the soft targets for this attack. “Cryptojacking” is another term for cryptocurrency hijacking. It’s a program that discreetly injects mining programs into the system. As a result, the hacker mines cryptocurrency using the CPU, GPU, and power resources of the infected system invisibly. The approach is mostly used to mine Monero currencies. Mining is a sophisticated operation that requires the majority of CPU resources, lowering system performance. It is also done under your name and all of your costs so that the victim receives a large electricity and internet bill. It also reduces the longevity of the gadget in question.



Phishing is the practice of sending spam emails that appear to come from a reputable source. These emails include a strong subject line and include attachments such as an invoice, employment offers, large offers from trustworthy shipping providers, or any essential communication from the company’s top executives. The most prevalent cyber attacks are phishing scams, which try to steal sensitive data such as login credentials, credit card numbers, bank account information, and so on. To avoid this, learn more about phishing email campaigns and how to protect yourself. To avoid this attack, email filtering methods might be used.

In addition to these, biometric assaults, AI attacks, and IoT threats will be investigated in 2019. Large-scale cyber-attacks are wreaking havoc on many businesses and organizations, and there is no end in sight. Despite ongoing security analysis and updates, cyber-threats continue to rise. As a result, it is worthwhile to educate yourself on the fundamentals of cybersecurity and how to execute it.


What is the most important notion in cyber security?

Cyber security is a wide phrase that is founded on three core concepts known as “The CIA Triad.”Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability are the three components. This model is intended to guide an organization’s Cyber Security policy in the field of information security.


The Fundamentals of CyberSecurity


It establishes the rules that govern information access. Confidentiality refers to the safeguards in place to prevent cybercriminals and hackers from gaining access to sensitive information. People in an organization are granted or denied access to information based on its category by authorizing the appropriate people in a department. They are also provided sufficient training on information sharing and the use of strong passwords to secure their accounts. They can alter how data is handled within a company to maintain data security. Two-factor authentication, data encryption, data classification, biometric verification, and security tokens are some of the methods for ensuring secrecy.



This ensures that the data remains consistent, accurate, and reliable throughout time. It means that data in transit should not be changed, altered, deleted, or accessed in an unauthorized manner. To maintain an organization’s safety, proper precautions should be taken. The data breach is controlled by file permissions and user access control. Additionally, methods and technologies should be established to identify any data alteration or intrusion. A checksum, or even a cryptographic checksum, is used by a variety of organizations to validate the integrity of data. Regular backups should be in place to deal with data loss, unintentional deletion, and even cyberattacks. Cloud backups are now the most dependable option.



All relevant components, such as hardware, software, networks, devices, and security equipment, should be maintained and upgraded to ensure availability. This will ensure that the system runs smoothly and that data can be accessed without interruption. Additionally, sufficient bandwidth is required to ensure ongoing communication between the components.


It also entails purchasing additional security equipment in the event of a crisis or congestion. Firewalls, disaster recovery plans, proxy servers, and a reliable backup solution should all be in place to combat DoS attacks. A good method should go through numerous layers of security to ensure that every component of CyberSecurity is protected. Computers, physical systems, networks, software applications, and shared data are all examples.



To implement an effective Cyber Security strategy, an organization’s people, processes, computers, networks, and technology, whether large or little, should all share equal responsibility. It is very much conceivable to withstand the tough cyber danger and attacks if all components complement each other.